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事出何因?通用汽车全美近5万员工罢工

Chris Morris 2019年09月18日

为什么罢工?什么时候结束?下面是一些答案。

12年来,这是第一次看到通用汽车公司将近5万工人罢工。

瑞士信贷(Credit Suisse)分析师丹·利维表示,罢工可能会让公司每天损失5000万美元。通用汽车的股价受到冲击,截至周一午盘下跌约3%。

想知道背后的原因以及正在做什么来结束罢工?下面是一些答案。

通用汽车工人为何罢工?

通用汽车和全美汽车工人联合会(United Auto Workers)正在就一份为期四年的新合同进行谈判,但在关键问题上仍存在很大分歧。所谓的关键问题是指工资、福利和工作保障。

罢工将持续多久?

目前还很难说。合同谈判仍在继续(周一上午10点又重启了)。

不过,之前的罢工时间都不短。1970年的罢工持续了67天。1998年密歇根州弗林特市的一次罢工持续了54天。

罢工是否意味着我买不了通用汽车了?

如果你想买凯迪拉克、雪佛兰、别克、GMC或其他通用品牌的汽车,这段时间买应该没问题。该公司预见到罢工的发生,提前增加了库存。考克斯汽车(Cox Automotive)说,通用汽车的库存足够供应77天(包括轿车、卡车和SUV),远远高于该行业61天的平均库存量。轿车的库存略低,仅够供59天,不过仍高于行业标准。

通用汽车答应了汽车工人联合会什么?

虽然罢工谈判通常是保密的,但通用汽车周日不同寻常地公开宣布了它向工会做出的承诺,这或许是因为公众和政客开始在这场备受关注的战斗中选边站,通用汽车想表示自己已经为谈判做出了真诚的努力。

通用汽车表示,它已向工会提供了70多亿美元的投资,并承诺再增加5400个工作岗位。该公司还表示,将在四年的协议期内提高工资,为工会每名成员提供8000美元的签约奖金,并将改进利润分配方式。该公司还表示要为计划关闭的两家装配厂提供“解决方案”。

汽车工人联合会想要通用汽车做什么?

For the first time in 12 years, General Motors has seen its workers—nearly 50,000 of them—walk off the job.

It's a work action that could cost the company $50 million per day, according to Dan Levy, an analyst at Credit Suisse. And the company's stock is taking a hit, falling roughly 3% by midday Monday.

Confused about what's behind all of this and what's being done to end the strike? We've got a few answers for you.

Why are GM workers on strike?

GM and the United Auto Workers are negotiating a new four-year contract and remain far apart on key issues. The key issues are wages, benefits, and job security.

How long will the GM strike last?

That's unclear right now. Contract talks are continuing (and began again at 10 a.m. Monday).

Previous strikes have gone the distance, though. A 1970 walkout lasted 67 days. And a strike in Flint, Mich. in 1998 went on for 54 days.

Does this strike mean I won't be able to buy a GM car?

If you're in the market for a Cadillac, Chevrolet, Buick, GMC, or any other GM-branded vehicle, you should be fine for a while. The company saw this strike coming and built up its available supply. Cox Automotive says GM has a 77-day supply of vehicles (including cars, trucks and SUVs), well above the industry's 61 day average. It's a bit lower on cars alone, having a 59-day supply, though that's still above the industry norm.

What is GM offering the UAW?

While strike negotiations are generally kept under wraps, General Motors took the unusual move Sunday of publicly announcing what it had offered the union, perhaps to show it has made good faith negotiation efforts as the public and politicians begin to take sides in the now spotlighted battle.

GM says it has offered the union over $7 billion in investments and has pledged to add another 5,400 jobs. It also says it's offering wage increases for all four years of the deal, an $8,000 signing bonus per membe, and an improved profit sharing formula. It's also offering "solutions" for two assembly plants that are scheduled to close.

What does the UAW want from GM?

美国汽车工人联合会周一开始了针对通用汽车的全国性罢工,约4.6万名工会成员在合同谈判陷入僵局后开始罢工。图片来源:Jeff Kowalsky—AFP

全美汽车工人联合会没有像通用汽车那样表明立场。不贵,该工会正试图阻止密歇根州、俄亥俄州和马里兰州的四家工厂关闭。它希望给初级工人加薪。它还表示,医保对于工人而言是重中之重。工会可能也在寻求让临时工成为固定员工以及缩小临时工和固定员工之间工资差距的方式。

腐败指控又是怎么回事?

就在劳动合同的最后期限临近之际,工会主席加里·琼斯卷入了一起联邦腐败调查。有消息向彭博社(Bloomberg),琼斯和其他几人被控长期参与谋划侵吞会员会费,用于购买豪华别墅和商品等。

到目前为止,他还没有丢掉工作,但没有出现在宣布罢工的新闻发布会上。(不过,有关罢工的新闻声明援引了他的话。)

本次罢工和2007年相比有何不同?

2007年的罢工只持续了几天,起因是20天不成功的谈判。不过,值得注意的是,那次罢工中有7.3万名工人参与。49年前的一次罢工中,工会代表了40万名工人的利益。参加罢工的工人人数越少,在全国的影响就越小。

通用汽车是唯一一家面临罢工的车企吗?

目前来说,是的。通用汽车是第一家与汽车工人联合会谈判的车企。稍后该工会将与福特和菲亚特克莱斯勒进行谈判。估计通用汽车最终达成的协议将成为这些汽车制造商的模版。但是,到目前为止,工会还没有透露下一个谈判对象是谁。(财富中文网)

译者:Agatha

The UAW isn't showing its hand the way GM has. However, it's trying to stop the closure of four plants in Michigan, Ohio, and Maryland. It wants pay raises for entry-level workers. And it has said health care is a priority for workers. The union is also likely looking for paths for temporary workers to become permanent and to close the wage gap between those workers and permanent employees.

What's this I hear about corruption charges?

Gary Jones, president of the union, was implicated in a federal corruption probe right as the deadline for the labor contract drew near. Sources tell Bloomberg Jones is one of several people accused of taking part in a long-term conspiracy to embezzle member dues and spend them on luxury villas and merchandise.

So far, he has kept his job, but did not appear at a press conference where the strike was announced. (He was quoted in the press statement about the strike, however.)

How will this GM strike compare to the one in 2007?

The 2007 work action only lasted a couple of days and came after 20 days of unsuccessful talks. What's notable, though, is that action saw 73,000 workers walking the picket lines. And a strike 49 years ago saw the union representing 400,000 workers. A smaller number of workers on strike has a smaller impact on the national scene.

Is GM the only automaker facing a strike?

For now, yes. GM was the first manufacturer to negotiate with the UAW. Talks with Ford and Fiat Chrysler will come later. It's expected that the deal GM ultimately strikes will set the precedent for those automakers. But, so far, the union hasn't said who it will begin bargaining with next.

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